Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Beloved The story in Beloved authored by Toni Morrison was centered on the aftermath experience of the protagonist; Sethe as a slavery escapee. The story which defied chronology was mirrored in flashbacks. The harsh experience of slavery was still patent and the memories of bitter struggles were still haunting the characters. There was an inhibition in the ability to move on. The ruination of identity by slavery and competence of language were two vital themes in the story and would be further analyzed. Ruination of identity by slavery as theme depicted the physiological, mental and spiritual burden of slavery which is inescapable as it continues to haunt the characters like Sethe and Paul D who experienced it. Slavery was accompanied with negativity on the true identity of oneself and this made story have several situations of self-denial and estrangement. For example, Paul D was unsure of whether the wailings and tears of grief, he was feeling were coming from himself or someone else: Ã¢â¬Å"In the boxes the men heard the water rise in the trench and looked out for cottonmouths. They squatted in muddy water, slept above it, peed in it. Paul D thought he was screaming; his mouth was open and there was this loud throat-splitting sound--but it may have been somebody else. Then he thought he was crying. Something was running down his cheeks. He lifted his hands to wipe away the tears and saw dark brown slimeÃ¢â¬ . The slaves received endured inhuman conditions which included being traded as a normal good in exchange for paper money. Paul D always questioned his worth as a human and suffered from inferiority of being insecure of whether or not he was truly a Ã¢â¬Å"manÃ¢â¬ . Sethe also experienced the cruelty of slavery. She once intrude... ...ry when Paul D and prison inmates from Georgia sang about their past experiences and dream; Ã¢â¬Å"garbling the words so they could not be understood; tricking the words so their syllables yielded up other meaningsÃ¢â¬ . In another case, Stamp Paid saw through the window, two backs and went to see for himself; believing that Ã¢â¬Å"the undecipherable language clamoring around the house was the mumbling of the black and angry deadÃ¢â¬ . The titling of the story comes down to what is regarded as language misunderstanding. At the burial of her daughter whom killed by her hand, Sethe misunderstood the ministerÃ¢â¬â¢s address referring to the living as Ã¢â¬Å"Dear belovedÃ¢â¬ and interpreted it as referencing to the dead. The meaning of words depend heavily the changing interpretation of words: figures of speech rely on the capability of words to connect and disconnect with the definitions of words.
Monday, August 19, 2019
Jamaican Politics, Reggae and Rastafarianism in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s "In the last election Prime Minister X went to Ethiopia and met with the King of Kings and had a conversation with him. He came back to Jamaica and showed the people a Rod, which he said was given to him by the King, Haile Selassie the First, to bring freedom to the Black People of Jamaica. He carried that Rod all around during the campaign. The Rastafarians heard this; the Dreadlocks heard this; and this rod caused him to win a landslide victory for the Party. Well, I and I welcome that, because the former government did nothing for the cause of Africa, Rastas, or no one. As you know, we Rastas do not vote, because you cannot take out a rat and put in a cat, but the Prime Minister came to power talking like a Rastafarian. He started some progressive moves on behalf of the African peoples of this country. But after a while he forgot the Rod; he forgot to talk about Africa; he forgot to talk about the Rastafarians. What we now know, is that if the Prime Minister even wanted to do some thing good for the African peoples of this country, his lieutenants will not allow him to do it. After he came back from Ethiopia he called himself Joshua, the one who was to take us to the Promised Land, but the only freedom we have seen up to now is the word Ã¢â¬ËSocialismÃ¢â¬â¢. To be honest, he had done better than the other party, for the other Party was so anti-Black that not even Elijah Muhammad could enter Jamaica as a Black man. Today, it is a little better; there is freedom of speech for I and I. As you see, we even got the Marcus Garvey Park to use. Here and there we have seen a little change on the part of the government but not enough to bring the Black masses out of the slums they are in right now."(Barrett 180) This quote, along with numerous other readings, has sparked my interest in the political scene and situation surrounding Jamaica, Rastafarianism and reggae music in the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s. It seems to me, despite the economic shambles of Jamaica and the staunch and deliberate refusal of Rastafarians to participate in "politricks", that politics has had a deep impact on any and every aspect of life in Jamaica.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s Gentle OpheliaÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã William Shakespeare created a gentle little creature in the character of Ophelia in the tragedy Hamlet. Her strange misfortunes, as well as other circumstances, make her life an interesting one to explore in this essay. Ã Ward and Trent in The Cambridge History of English and American Literature maintain that Ophelia is interesting in herself, aside from her relationship with the hero: Ã Of Ophelia, and Polonius, and the queen and all the rest, not to mention Hamlet himself (in whose soul it would be absurd to attempt to discover new points here), after this we need not say anything. But it is observable that they are not, as in the case of Coriolanus, interesting merely or mainly for their connection with the hero, but in themselves. (vol.5, pt.1, ch.8, sec.16, no.55) Ã Helena Faucit (Lady Martin) in On Some of Shakespeare's Female Characters reveals the misunderstood character of Ophelia: Ã My views of Shakespeare's women have been wont to take their shape in the living portraiture of the stage, and not in words. I have, in imagination, lived their lives from the very beginning to the end; and Ophelia, as I have pictured her to myself, is so unlike what I hear and read about her, and have seen represented on the stage, that I can scarcely hope to make any one think of her as I do. It hurts me to hear her spoken of, as she often is, as a weak creature, wanting in truthfulness, in purpose, in force of character, and only interesting when she loses the little wits she had. And yet who can wonder that a character so delicately outlined, and shaded in with touches so fine, should be often gravely misunderstood? (186) Ã Ophelia enters the play with her ... ...s 6.1 (May, 2000): 2.1-24 . Ã Pennington, Michael. Ã¢â¬Å"Ophelia: Madness Her Only Safe Haven.Ã¢â¬ Readings on Hamlet. Ed. Don Nardo. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1999. Rpt. of Ã¢â¬Å"HamletÃ¢â¬ : A UserÃ¢â¬â¢s Guide. New York: Limelight Editions, 1996. Ã Pitt, Angela. Ã¢â¬Å"Women in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Tragedies.Ã¢â¬ Readings on The Tragedies. Ed. Clarice Swisher. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 1996. Reprint of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Women. N.p.: n.p., 1981. Ã Shakespeare, William. The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1995. http://www.chemicool.com/Shakespeare/hamlet/full.html No line nos. Ã Ward & Trent, et al. The Cambridge History of English and American Literature. New York: G.P. PutnamÃ¢â¬â¢s Sons, 1907Ã¢â¬â21; New York: Bartleby.com, 2000 http://www.bartleby.com/215/0816.html Ã Ã
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Macro Systems are the division of the broad practices of Social Work. The divisions of social work are often divided into three practices which include the categories of macro, mezzo, and micro. Often commended as being a system which provides intervention services that affect entire communities and their systems of care and concern, Macro level social work has been known to be highly effective. Responsibility of the Human Service Worker in the Macro Environment Because Macro System focuses on large groups, socials workers who use this practice most often work in efforts to help clients more so on a community level rather than individually. Lobbying to change health care laws, organizing state-wide activist groups or being activist for social policy change have often become battles of social workers who see the needs of their clients who are not in a position to initiate the necessary changes. Social Workers ultimate responsibility in the macro system environment is to be the voice of the people to which they provide their services. It is also left up to human service workers to collaborate with those people who are the over seers of the services that they distribute to make certain that the services provided meet the needs of the people. Personal, Interpersonal, and Political Empowerment Empowerment is essential in the Macro system environment. PersonalÃ empowerment is centered on the individual and is the functionality of having an influence on events which are personified in the ideology of the person. Interpersonal Empowerment is proportioned by the successful interaction with others and the level of concern that we place on the regards other people have for us. This level of empowerment is based on social status, class, gender and sex and refers to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s ability of influence others. Political empowerment is the process of allocating resources, and stresses the goals of social change as well as social actions. Political empowerment is very interactive with society but still makes room for a person to maintain his or her individuality Individual Involvement in Multiple Social Systems An individualÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement in multiple social systems is very common. In the micro system the focus is based on individual personal interaction. In the micro system an individual may discover that he or she needs counseling and may seek one on one professional help. The mezzo system includes communities, institutions, or small structures such as neighborhoods. This system is a derivative of such organizations as self-help groups or community advocacy programs. Taking on an active role in the mezzo and micro systems as well, the macro system addresses issues in these systems as well. The macro system affects systems and communities. In the macro system individuals are actively involved in creating change in social programs such as health care. Macro Systems in Response to Child Maltreatment, Sexual Abuse, Crime, and Delinquency Child maltreatment, sexual abuse, crime, and delinquency are key factors in the mere existence of the social work program. In the macro system child maltreat takes precedence over all else and because of strict guidelines of care and concern in reference to children, the macro system provides several outlets to report abuse or suspected abuse of children as well as vulnerable adults. In response to Sexual Abuse in the macro systems have come up with medical procedures to detect sexual abuse in some cases and certain laws such as PREA (Prison, Rape, and Elimination Act) were established to protect individuals in prison communities from enduring sexual abuse. Crime and Delinquency which often go hand in hand areÃ addressed on different levels. In the macro system, children who are delinquent are often placed in juvenile corrections in an effort to rehabilitate. Boots Camps such as the Mississippi Challenge Academy at Camp Shelby which was established in 1993. This program was considered a second chance for juvenile delinquents. In the macro system there is no clear cut or precise course of actions because every case is different. The level of response is totally dependent upon the mitigating circumstance surrounding the event. Functionalism and Interactionist Theory Relative to Poverty Ã¢â¬Å"A functionalist framework is used to synthesize well-known ideas about societal integration and, conversely, disintegration. If the underlying Darwinian metaphor in functional analysis is retained, and supplemented by dialectical metaphors, then functional theorizing can insightfully address the forces of societal disintegration. (Turner, Johnathan H. A macro-level functional theory of societal disintegration. The International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy. (1996): P36)Ã¢â¬ . In regards to the functionalism theory applied to poverty in the macro system it exemplifies that there is a place for poverty in society. Impoverished people and their needs are essential to social workers as well as service providers who distribute or allocate resources those who need them. Ã¢â¬Å"Many social workers have made use of symbolic interactionism as a microsociological underpinning for work with individuals, couples, families and groups. The profession has less often applied interactionist thought to work with larger social systems. Queralt (1996), however, in her text on human behavior and the social environment, gave importance to the community theorizing of Robert Park, a Chicago School sociologist who taught many symbolic interactionists. In addition, she discussed ParkÃ¢â¬â¢s application of concepts like the Ã¢â¬Å"web of life,Ã¢â¬ succession, and competition to community processes and judged these as forerunners of the modern social work ecological model. (Breakwell, G. M. (1982). The holly and the ivy: Social psychology and social work. In P. Stringer (Ed.), Confronting social issues: Applications of social psychology, Vol. 1 (pp. 204-223). London: Academic Press.) In total contrast to the functionalist theory, the interactionist theory concludes that people are poor because of situations or circumstance occurring in lifeÃ which was by far beyond their control. In the essence of poverty the functionalist believe that there is a place for poor people in society and that itÃ¢â¬â¢s necessary to have poor people and the interactionist basically believes that no one should be poor. Conclusion In conclusion the macro system is a major component of social work. Unlike the micro a mezzo systems, the macro system focus on larger entities of society which include schools, neighborhoods, or communities. I most favor the macro system because itÃ¢â¬â¢s much easier to determine your effectiveness as a social worker. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s great to be able to help individuals but in the macro systems, the social worker serves as the voice of the people and often cause or create change in policies, allocations of resources, and brainstorming new ideas to improve those resources already in place. References Breakwell, G. M. (1982). The holly and the ivy: Social psychology and social work. In P. Stringer (Ed.), Confronting social issues: Applications of social psychology, Vol. 1 (pp. 204-223). London: Academic Press. Konopka, G. (1972). Social group work: A helping process. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Turner, Johnathan H. A macro-level functional theory of societal disintegration. The International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy. (1996): P36)Ã¢â¬
Friday, August 16, 2019
Employer Support of the Guard and Reserve (ESGR) regularly fields inquiries regarding the Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA) from service members employed by the Federal Government and from the Federal Government about a service member employee. A vast majority of these questions relate to the application of certain USERRA requirements at the Federal workplace. To add to the complexity of USERRAÃ¢â¬â¢s application in the Federal workplace, the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) regulation provides additional, non-USERRA required benefits to service member employees when performing certain types of military service. Discussion: Primarily six (concerns/issues) are regularly raised by service member employees and federal government employers regarding USERRA. ESGR does not have the full view associated with USERRA claims because service members have multiple redress avenues for their USERRA issues or concerns. However, ESGR believes that targeted education and training focused on the six areas below will greatly reduce USERRA cases in the federal government by service member employees. Mandatory USERRA training that specifically includes OPMÃ¢â¬â¢s military leave benefits, monitored and tracked similar to the Information Assurance or government Ethics, or Sexual Harassment training would reduce federal USERRA cases. Frequent Concerns of Service member employees and Federal employer: Issue 1: Service members feel that they are not properly reinstated to the appropriate position upon completion of military service * Federal agencies fail to reinstate returning service member due to position being filled or position being cut * Service members are not considered for promotional opportunities, miss interviews, face closed application periods upon return from military service * Recommended training focus: 20 CFR 1002. 191-199 and 5 CRF 353. 207 to understand reinstatement position requirements * 20 CFR 1002. 193 (b) and 5 CFR 353. 106 (c) regarding promotional opportunities Issue 2: Request for orders with service memberÃ¢â¬â¢s name/documentation to prove attendance in advance of service or following service lasting less than 30 days * USERRA does not require documentation to perform service in a leave without pay status * This issue relates to OPMÃ¢â¬â¢s paid military leave benefit. In order to receive paid leave, the agency must have documentation of service and the service must be for the purpose of active duty or active duty training * Service members do not always receive documentation in advance, or have been advised that documentation cannot be required from an employer in advance of service by law * Employers assume that since documentation is required to receive paid military leave, it should be required at all times for consistency * Recommended training focus: * Highlight 20 CFR 1002. 85, 1002. 121-123 Coordinate with OPM regarding paid time off and requirements to take advantage of benefit * Understand LWOP and LWOP US requirements and that penalty cannot come to SM with advanced verbal/written notice in any format Issue 3: Service members feel discriminated against due to past, present or future military service * Service members report that with knowledge of upcoming service, they are harassed, denied opportunities (i. e. training, consideration for advancement), and treated differently from their peers * Federal agencies must instill in managers and supervisors that discrimination is unlawful * Recommended training focus: 20 CFR 1002. 18-23 and 353. 202 defining anti-discrimination under USERRA Issue 4: Both service members and federal employer have questions about what is / is not exempt from five year service limit * Most but not all orders will indicate exemptions from the five year service limit * Much of service performed in the last ten years in support of the Global War on Terror is considered exempt service * Service members are not aware that retirement from military service can disqualify service member from reinstatement due to Ã¢â¬Å"career statusÃ¢â¬ with military * Recommended training focus: 20 CFR 1002. 99-103 and Secretary memos * Educate SM regarding Ã¢â¬Å"career serviceÃ¢â¬ retirements and the potential issues when returning to work Issue 5: Federal Employers misunderstand timelines to report back to work * Federal employers have stated confusion regarding Ã¢â¬ËapplicationÃ¢â¬â¢ for reemployment as defined by law. Since he service member was never separated, some agencies feel that the member does not need additional time to reapply * Concerned agencies wonder what status the service member should be held in during this time * Both Federal employers and the service m embers have confusion about the relation of their return to work date and the five days paid administrative leave for contingency operations. * Recommended training focus: * 20 CFR 1002. 115-1002. 119 and 5 CFR 353. 05 to understand the definitions of Ã¢â¬ËapplicationÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËreemploymentÃ¢â¬â¢ * Coordinate with OPM regarding status to determine if the service member maintain LWOP-US status until returned to work * Coordinate with OPM regarding five days of leave administrative leave and itÃ¢â¬â¢s coordination with return to work dates Issue 6: Health benefits are not properly stopped, restarted with military service absences * Federal employers will continue health benefits when performing certain contingency missions, but sometimes fail to terminate benefits without affirmative action from the service member * Reinstatement of benefits can be delayed Suspension of and reinstatement of vision / dental FEBH benefits must be done separately from health benefits, but are still covered by the law. * Recommended training focus: * 20 CFR 1002. 163-171 pertaining to stopping/starting benefits * Coordination with OPM regarding what type of orders are eligible for continuation of benefits
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Throughout the course of history, civilizations have been developing all over the globe. Some of these civilizations have shared several goals, experiences, and problems. Two particularly noteworthy civilizations are those of Greece and China. Greece had many city-states within in it. Two major Greek city-states were Sparta and Athens. Despite belonging to Greece, these city-states were unique culturally, politically, and socially. The Han Dynasty in China is another civilization that was unique in terms of its cultural, political, and social development. Greek and Chinese civilizations have several similar and different aspects that have been the reason for their goals, experiences, and problems in life, but they both have also been unique culturally, politically, and socially. Athens, one of the most powerful city-states in Greece, had three major goals defined by its ruler, Pericles. His three major goals were to protect Athens, beautify it, and to make the Democracy stronger. In order for Pericles to strengthen the democracy he needed to increase the number of paid public officials. Read more: Constitution mini q answer key essay Before, only the wealthy could afford to hold public office, but by increasing the number of paid public officials it allowed even the poor to engage in self-government. Pericles believed that the Athenian constitution should be in the power of the people and by establishing a direct Democracy; he was able to enforce this in Athens. One way Pericles attempted to protect Athens was by using the money from the treasury of the Delian League to build Athens the strongest fleet of ships in the Mediterranean. The Delian League was an alliance of ancient Greek city-states, which were dominated by Athens. This was important in protecting Athens since it was surrounded by water. If they could control access to their surrounding waterways then they could decrease their chances of invasion. Athens is located right next to the Mediterranean Sea, which enabled them to develop their strong navy force for military use. This was only one way Pericles strengthened Athens; he also found a way to make Athens gloriously beautiful. Pericles beautified Athens by using money from the Empire to buy gold, ivory, and marble. He did this because those materials were expensive assets and helped make Athens a wealthier and powerful city-state. All these goals that Athens developed over time, helped protect it, beautify it and make it the strongest city-state of all time. Despite AthensÃ¢â¬â¢ prosperity, this city-state experienced many obstacles that ultimately stripped it of its dominance within Ancient Greece. Power shifted from Athens to Sparta during the Peloponnesian War. Sparta was focused primarily on militaristic endeavors while Athens celebrated peace, intellectual development, art, and beauty. Sparta had an inarguable advantage since all male citizens spent their lives training to become strong soldiers, and all women were responsible for being strong enough to bear more soldiers. SpartaÃ¢â¬â¢s attacks were most effective when fighting on land so Athens did have an advantage since it was surrounded by bodies of water and had the strongest navy in all of Greece. Under Pericles, AthensÃ¢â¬â¢ plan was to avoid land battle with the strong Spartan Army, so they waited for the right time to strike from the sea. Years passed and eventually Athens fell to SpartaÃ¢â¬â¢s strong military tactics. After Sparta won the war, it was then the strongest city-state in ancient Greece. AthensÃ¢â¬â¢ downfall shifting power in favor of Sparta was important because it reshaped the Ancient Greek World. These developments made Sparta the strongest city-state in all of Greece. Athens also had major economic inequalities which shaped their way of life. Athenian farmers often found themselves sold into slavery when they were unable to repay the loans they had borrowed from their neighbors. This forced them to pledge themselves as collateral. Years passed and the Athenian farmers asked their lenders to cancel the debts and to give them land. The lenders were not so keen on this idea, which led to a civil war within Athens between the farmers and the lenders. This civil war within Athens, gave Sparta the right time to strike. Once Sparta attacked, it was all over because Athens was not prepared to strike back. The war within made Athens weaker, giving Sparta the advantage it needed to win the Peloponnesian War. This civil war helped shape AthensÃ¢â¬â¢ future by distracting it from external concerns thus giving Sparta the chance to attack and ultimately win the Peloponnesian War. Sparta was a city-state within Greece that also had many goals, experiences and problems. One of SpartaÃ¢â¬â¢s main goals was to create an invincible force. They made their army an invincible force by training their warriors from a young age to become the men Sparta needed to fight SpartaÃ¢â¬â¢s wars. This allowed for the expansion of SpartaÃ¢â¬â¢s military power. One example of their military power was their victory in the Peloponnesian war. Sparta had strong military tactics, which helped them overcome the mighty city-state Athens. Athens was considered most powerful because of its prosperity, wealth, and strong navy fleet, but Sparta won the war due to their military power on land and the civil war which weakened Athens. The war changed the dynamic power between the two city-states, which caused a great deal of unique changes in these two city-states, and thus, all of Ancient Greece. The Han Dynasty within the Chinese civilization was another civilization that had many goals, experiences, and problems. One of the Han DynastyÃ¢â¬â¢s main goals was the unification of China. The Han dynasty was able to unify China by incorporating principles of Confucian thought into social structure, laws, and spiritual beliefs. The incorporation of Confucianism helped to strengthen the economy, reconstruct the royal palace, and also allowed for the rise of aristocratic families. Confucianism brought the idea that people are born with a potential for morality. The Han incorporated this idea into their state policy, believing that rulers must support it. This caused the Han period to see a great reduction in harsh laws and punishments, and a turn to rule by merit doctrine, which is rule under one leader. The Han DynastyÃ¢â¬â¢s unification transformed Chinese civilization in many ways leading to its cultural, political, and social uniqueness. The Han dynasty experienced great military expansion throughout its reign. Its powerful military forces were able to expand the kingdom all the way to Vietnam and Korea. Chinese culture, ways of life, schools of thought, and religion were spread to all of these conquered lands. This was a major accomplishment for the Han dynasty because it changed the world in more ways than anyone could suspect. Most of all, it made the Han Dynasty bigger and stronger, thus more capable of making even more influential changes. This expansion led to increase trade, which brought about the Silk Road, a massive network of trade routes which connected the East to other parts of the world. The Chinese used the Silk Road to trade mostly silk, copper, and iron; however this trade route grew to also support the exchange of many other objects such as spices, weapons, textiles, and more. The improved trading network and military expansion allowed the Chinese civilization to prosper as a nation, and to develop culturally, politically, and socially under no oneÃ¢â¬â¢s terms but their own. Athens and Sparta were city-states within Greece, but they both had different forms of government. AthensÃ¢â¬â¢ government occasionally used tyrannical methods, but mainly followed a democratic model of government. The Spartans did not approve of tyranny so they produced a different form of government in order to avoid it. The SpartansÃ¢â¬â¢ form of government was called an Oligarchy. Oligarchic government is made up of four parts: the kingship which is unique in that there are two kings, the Gerousia (the council of elders), the Ephorate, and the assembly. These two forms of government helped these respective city-states within Greece to become some of the strongest nations in the world. Unlike Greece, China was a feudal state. The Han Dynasty was a heavily centralized state, much like that of Sparta. The Hans did not follow AthensÃ¢â¬â¢ form of democracy, which made them different from each other. Under the Han rulers, the doctrines of Confucianism were revived and followed. Under Confucian teachings, the ruler and the subject should have mutual respect for each other, the people and the ruler should both exhibit good behavior, and the ruler should be an example for the rest of the people. Everyone was expected to respect the ruler, even if he was a bad leader. Legalism was another governmental ideal that was spread throughout the Han Dynasty. Legalism stated that humans were naturally evil and required discipline and restraint by the government. Throughout the Han dynasty, these two forces influenced the government. Confucian teachings and Legalism shaped the Han dynastyÃ¢â¬â¢s goals, experiences, and problems which contributed to make them the nation they have become. Many differences between Athens and the Han Dynasty have caused them to become the nations as we know them today. One of the most influential differences between the two was the type of government they used within their civilizations. Athens had a democracy, whereas the Han Dynasty had a monarchical form of government. The difference between a democracy and a monarchy is that a monarchy is a form of government in which supreme power is given to an individual, who is the head of the state. The individual who heads a monarchy is called a monarch. Monarchies were the most common form of government in the world during ancient and medieval times. On the other hand in a democratic form of government the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system. These two forms of governments were prevalent in civilizations all over the globe. Many civilizations have prospered from these forms of governments, and most are still being used today. Another major difference between Athens and the Han Dynasty was that Athens was a small region of Greece whereas the Han Dynasty occupied a much bigger area all over China and was actively working to spread its kingdom. The amount of area a civilization conquered or owned helped determine if it was a strong civilization or a weak one. Athens despite being a small civilization in comparison with the Han Dynasty was still quite strong. Athens won its fair share of wars and battles, just like the Han Dynasty. One reason why Athens was a small civilization in compared to the Han Dynasty was because Athens was a city-state that was part of a greater empire, whereas the Han Dynasty was a great empire itself, making it stronger than Athens. Another difference between Athens and the Han Dynasty was that the Athenians were pagans, whereas the Han Chinese believed in Confucianism and Daoism. All these differences between the Han Dynasty and Athens have shaped the goals, experiences and problems for both civilizations in many ways. Within the Han society there were numerous agricultural inventions that helped to boost productivity throughout the dynasty. Among these were pulleys, and ox collars to enable the oxen to pull plows without choking. Another agricultural invention that increased productivity was winding gears which helped with mining. This differed from the Greek model in that the Greeks didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really contribute much to increase agricultural productivity. The Greeks believed that no new methods were needed because there were enough slaves to do the work. Productivity was one way in which the Greeks fell short of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s standards. Without agricultural inventions the Han Dynasty would not have been nearly as prosperous since these inventions helped shape their way of life and boosted their economy. One major similarity between the Greece civilizations and the Chinese civilization was that their social inequalities and weaknesses of the lower classes of society brought them to their decline. In Greece, the soil conditions were not ideal for the growth of grain, but grain was an extremely important part of Greek life. Farmers turned to olives and grapes which were very well adapted to the soilÃ¢â¬â¢s conditions, but were high in terms of maintenance. Also, grape vines and olive trees did not produce fruits for at least five years after planting; however, farmers still had to pay money to take care of the land, while getting nothing in return. As a result, the majority of the Greek farmers went into debt. Once in debt, they were very often mistreated by their landlords, who forced them to become laborers or slaves. The Greeks let their slaves do all the work, so there was little need for inventions that could increase productivity. Weakness within Athens and other city-states caused them to fight for each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s lands incessantly. Constant fighting between the city-states was the greatest weakness Ancient Greece faced. These problems within the Greek world shaped their ways of life in ways comparable and contrastive to the Chinese world. Within China, a weakness of the Han Dynasty was that the empire was debilitating gigantic. Near the center of the empire, government power was strong. However, as one moved outward toward the borders, government authority gradually declined due to lack of central government oversight. As time progressed, the once effective administration from the Han rulers became corrupt. For example, landlords would lie on their land taxes, so they could make a greater profit. Like Greece, the Chinese landlords would often double tax their already poor peasants, which eventually damaged the economy. When court officials tried to strip the corrupt landlords of their lands, they faced enormous resistance and were unable to change anything. Another weakness which contributed to the downfall of the Han Dynasty, like the Greeks, was internal fighting. The Confucian scholar gentry turned against the corrupt officials, while the officials struggled for power with everyone else. As all of this was occurring the lives of peasants continued to worsen. Eventually, the landholding elite held all the power in the country, and the policies of the emperor favored them. Then, Taoist ideals began to spread among the peasantry. Peasants across the country revolted in many instances, such as the Yellow Turban Rebellion, which ultimately led to the fall of the Han Empire. After the fall of the Han dynastyÃ¢â¬â¢s central government, power went to three warlords, officially beginning the Period of the Three Kingdoms. In the end, one can see that Greek and Chinese civilizations, though they have their similarities, have each evolved uniquely in terms of culture, political systems, and social norms and structure. Also, within these great civilizations the many differences and similarities within them have shaped their goals, experiences, and problems differently. Whether it is the form of government a nation follows, religious views, or societal beliefs, all of these factors bear influence on the civilizationÃ¢â¬â¢s direction in the end. Works Cited Fleck, Robert. Ã¢â¬Å"The Origins of Democracy: A Model with Application to Ancient Greece. Ã¢â¬ Journal of Law and Economics 49 (2006). Print. Holliday, A. J. Ã¢â¬Å"SpartaÃ¢â¬â¢s Role in the First Peloponnesian War. Ã¢â¬ The Journal of Hellenic Studies 97 (1977): 54-63. Print. Homer, and Robert Fagles. The Odyssey. New York: Penguin, 2006. Print. Nylan, Michael. Ã¢â¬Å"Han Classicists Writing in Dialogue about Their OwnTradition. Ã¢â¬Å"Philosophy East and West 47. 2 (1997): 133-88. Print.
10. Discuss the causes of popularity of fast food. In recent years, there have been many studies conducted on fast food. According to the results of these studies, fast food has become an indispensible part of human life and has become quite popular. There are numerous reasons for the popularity of fast food restaurants among which the two most important ones are that they are cheap and easily available. To begin with, one of the most significant reasons why many people today opt for fast food restaurants is that fast food is cheap. That is to say, because the cost of the ingredients of fast food is low, the prices are also low . Therefore, as expected, people have more of a tendency to eat fast food. For instance, students have generally limited pocket money and they tend to spend their money carefully. Thus, this situation compels them to eat fast food because it is more affordable for them. Briefly, the cheapness of fast food is one of the leading causes of its popularity. Another important reason why fast food restaurants are so popular is that they are easy available. In other words, today fast food branches are very widespread and people can find them almost everywhere. People can eat food without searching for a restaurant for a long time and when they find it, they donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to wait for long. To illustrate, students have limited time between classes and they can easily get fast food such as toasts and hamburgers in a place close to their school. In short people do not need to spend much time eating thanks to fast food. In conclusion, there are a myriad of reasons why fast food restaurants are very popular. We always focus on the neglect effects of eating in fast food restaurants but actually we need to examine the causes of its popularity. Two main reasons are that fast food is affordable and easily available. Nevertheless, people, especially children, should be well informed about negative effects of fast food.